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AC Power Sources
What is Power Factor?
Power Factor is the ratio of the actual power of the alternating current as measured by a wattmeter to the apparent power as indicated by an ammeter and voltmeter. It can also be defined as the cosine of the phase angle between the voltage applied to the load and the current passing through it. Inductive and Capacitive loads will cause a phase shift in the current. A perfect power factor is 1:1.
What is True Power (WATTS)?
True Power is the amount of work performed by an energy source over time. In AC circuits it takes into account non-sinusoidal wave shapes and leading and lagging current which are caused by reactive loads.
What is VA?
The VA rating of the power supply pertains to the sizing of the power supply. The VA rating of the power source is the true RMS current multiplied by the true RMS voltage. It is also considered Apparent Power.
What are some advantages of a linear power supply?
The linear supply offers low noise, low distortion and fast transient response but it is less efficient due to its larger size as well as being much heavier.
Agency Compliance Information
What is CE Marking?
CE is the abbreviation of "European Communities" and symbolises to custom officials that the product marked complies with one or more relevant EC-Direction. The CE Marking applies to products regulated by certain European health, safety and environmental protection legislation.
Do standards differ by country?
Safety standards do usually vary by country, especially between Europe and the United States. However, while many safety agencies are specifically founded and/or affiliated with certain countries, most are accepted by a variety of nations. For example, even though UL is the most popular electrical safety agency responsible for consumer products sold in the United States, many other countries have deemed UL listed products acceptable to sell within their own borders. Likewise, the United States accepts many products that are TÜV listed to be sold within our borders. Check with your local safety agency office for more information
What safety agency’s standards do I need to adhere to?
This varies by product type and classification. You can call us here at EEC or your local safety agency office for information on the standards that apply to your product.
What is a standard?
A standard is a set of test procedures that applies to a specific electrical product or category of products. Standards are used to verify that products meet basic requirements for safety, construction and durability.
What is a safety agency?
Safety agencies are regulatory bodies that establish testing procedures called standards. They provide their seal of approval, known as an agency listing, to a product that meets their standards. In the United States, one of the most popular agencies is Underwriters Laboratories (UL), in Germany, TÜV Rheinland, in China, China Compulsory Certification (CCC).
Do you provide automation software?
Yes. EEC provides software solutions that work with many of our electrical safety testers. Our software allows you to create, store, and load test files as well as capture and record test data and results. Click here browse our Automation Software
What are the advantages of automating my testing procedure?
Automation provides many advantages to all types manufacturers. Automating your test procedure can increase throughput and efficiency, allowing you to ship more product out the door in less time. Electrical safety testers with automation capability can be integrated into your previously existing testing apparatus, making upgrading equipment easier and more cost-effective. Automation allows you to record and store test results electronically, eliminating the need for paper storage systems and allowing you to search and filter easily through your results.
Will the high voltage of the safety testers put operator in danger?
Hipot considers a dangerous testing station, an operator may be in danger if it is not properly handled. In standard, it requires all the personnel trained before operating the instruments. Further, the operating environment needs to have warning signs visible for high voltage testing. Ikonix has more than 80 years of experience in this field, and we take very seriously to the product we made through rigorous site testings in order to ensure the lowest risk of injury and hazards of human error. Ikonix patented Smart GFI designed to ensure the electricity quickly discharged to minimize electric shocks. This is one of the reasons many branding companies select Ikonix.
How to set the high limit on a Hipot test?
All current safety standards require that there should be no breakdown during the withstand voltage test, and there are no strict requirements defined. Breakdown can usually be divided into physical breakdown and logical breakdown. Physical breakdown is when the insulation does not limit the current, the current will run at the maximum current value of the instrument to damage the DUT. Logical breakdown is to set a limit current to determine whether the breakdown and limit the output, to avoid serious damage to the DUT, and at the same time to better ensure the quality of the DUT. This limit current is set according to the type and characteristics of the DUT (for example, the current of ACW will be affected by the size of Y-capacitor). It is usually set by the DUT’s developer. Common high limit settings are: 2mA, 5mA, and 10mA.
When using the ARC detection function, the result has a slight difference between each safety tester. How to solve this issue?
There are many factors that affect ARC detection. Therefore, ikonix control the energy of ARC detection within +/- 1 level of error, and this error is following our standard. To meet the needs of productivity and quality, we recommend you conduct the batch test and adjust the sensitivity that is great for the DUTs.
Can Ikonix’s ARC detection function be calibrated? If so, how? If not, how to check if the ARC function is normal?
The upcoming ARC fixture can calibrate sensitivity for SE series. Other series can use this fixture to check if the detection range of each sensitivity (ARC LEVEL) is normal. It can be used as daily check in production line. This fixture will roll out soon. Please follow our website for the least news or contact our sales representative now.
Does Ikonix have standard fixtures of ARC inspection? Does it available to customers for the daily check?
Ikonix has a standard fixture to inspect sensitivity (ARC LEVEL). This fixture will roll out soon. Please follow our website for the least news or contact our sales representative now.
Why are there no ARC-related test criteria in the factory report?
Every Ikonix machine has verified the ARC function and ensures the error falls within +/- 1 level before it leaves the factory. This level differential is tested with our standard fixtures. Since ARC is a physical phenomenon of energy release, it cannot be expressed in the current value. Unlike the leakage current of the Hipot test can be measured by a digital multimeter. Therefore, Ikonix firstly proposed ARC detection to the industry in 1990, it defined the energy of ARC by sensitivity (ARC LEVEL). There are no ARCrelated test criteria in the factory report.
Can the high-frequency current ARC generated during the Hipot test be seen on the Hipot tester display?
The definition of Ikonix ARC current is to convert the energy into the current value that can be identified by the machine, and this current will not be displayed on our product.
Why does it test multiple DUTs in parallel cause ARC alarm triggering more frequently than test a single DUT?
Arc detection is a concept of energy detection. When multiple DUTs are tested at the same time, and the ARC occurs among few DUTs. The ARC energy generated will be greater compare to a single DUT. Which causes the alarm likely to get triggered. Further, when one of the DUTs is found abnormal, it is hard to confirm which DUT is the actual failure. If the defective rate of the product is high, we recommend performing the testing on a single DUT rather than parallel multiple DUTs to be more efficient.
What sensitivity (ARC LEVEL) is great for my product to determine ARC detection PASS or FAIL?
We suggest batch testing to define the proper sensitivity level for its defined quality by manufacturers.
What is the allowable error range of ARC detection when using the different model of the Ikonix safety tester?
There are many factors affects ARC detection. Therefore, Ikonix control the energy of ARC detection within +/- 1 Level.
What is a Class II appliance?
Class II appliance: an appliance in which protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only, but includes additional safety precautions such as double insulation or reinforced insulation.
What is the difference between a type test and a production line test?
Electrical safety tests are loosely broken up into 2 separate groups, design or type tests, and routine production line tests. Design tests are usually performed for research purposes during the design phase of an electrical product. The information gathered from a design test is useful for finding potential problems with product design and development. Production line tests are usually required to be performed on 100% of the products leaving a facility for sale to consumers. A production line test helps to ensure a particular product is safe for consumer use.
Do safety test operators need any special training?
We advise our customers that operators should have a working knowledge of electricity, safety and testing methodology. This can be accomplished in a number of ways including our educational programs and materials. Test operators do not need to be engineers or technicians but should have a basic understanding of the hazards involved in performing electrical safety tests.
What safety precautions should be taken during electrical safety testing?
Working with high voltage instruments requires knowledge of electronics and basic safety practices in the workplace. Contact us for more information.
Do safety testers have the ability to test at multiple frequencies?
Yes. Most electrical safety testers are capable of outputting both 50 and 60 hertz signals for use in the United States, Europe and Asia.
How do I determine what type of safety tester fits my application?
It is generally helpful to know what agency specification you need to comply with and/or what your in-house testing specifications are. Whether you have this information or not our trained sales staff can help guide you to the correct instrument for your applications.
Who needs to perform electrical safety tests?
Electrical safety testing has been implemented and enforced for one reason: to protect consumers from potentially fatal electric shock. These tests are performed to ensure that products, including anything from household electric coffee makers to hairdryers and computers meet industry standards for construction, performance, ratings, markings and instruction manuals. Not only do manufacturers want to prevent faulty components from being installed in their products, but they also want to catch workmanship defects in assemblies before installation. Following a proper safety testing procedure can help to identify production problems before a product is shipped preventing costly recalls and embarrassing public announcements. Still other manufacturers test to protect themselves from product liability suits. Whatever the reason may be, electrical safety testing makes good sense for any consumer product manufacturer.
What kinds of tests are considered electrical safety tests?
There are 5 important electrical safety tests that manufacturers perform: the Dielectric Withstand (Hipot) test, Ground Bond test, Ground Continuity test, Insulation Resistance test, and the Line Leakage test.
What is electrical safety testing?
Electrical safety testing is a general term used to describe the testing procedures a manufacturer's product must pass in order to be deemed safe to sell to consumers within specific countries. More often than not, regulatory agencies establish these compliance test procedures. They in turn provide their seal of approval, known as an agency listing, to a product that meets their standards.
What is a Hipot test?
This test, also known as the Dielectric Withstand test, is used to stress the insulation of a product far beyond what it would encounter during normal operation. High voltage is applied from the mains-input lines to the chassis of the product for a specified length of time to check the integrity of the insulation by monitoring resulting leakage current. The Hipot test is a 100% production line test and can be performed using either an AC or a DC voltage.
What is a Hipot?
A Hipot (which is an acronym for high potential) is a testing instrument used to verify the integrity of an electrical product's insulation.